5G is the fifth generation of cellular mobile communications. The 4G (LTE/WiMax), 3G (UMTS) and 2G (GSM) systems. 5G performance targets high data rate, reduced latency, energy saving, cost reduction, higher system capacity, and massive device connectivity. The first phase of 5G specifications in Release-15 will be completed by March 2019, to accommodate the early commercial deployment. The second phase in Release-16 is due completed by March 2020, for submission to the ITU as a candidate of IMT-2020 technology.
The ITU IMT-2020 specification demand for speeds up to 20 gigabits per second, achievable with millimeter waves of 15 gigahertz and higher frequency.3GPP is going to submit 5G NR (New Radio) as its 5G communication standard proposal. 5G New Radio can include lower frequencies, from 600 MHz to 6 GHz. However, the speeds in these lower frequencies are only slightly higher than new 4Gsystems, estimated at 15% to 50% faster.
5G promises superior speeds in most conditions to the 4G network. 5G NR speed in sub-6 GHz bands can be slightly higher than 4G with a similar amount of spectrum and antennas.
Unless there is substantial field testing, 5G speeds can only be estimated. Qualcomm, the leading chipmaker, presented at Mobile World Congress a model that has been cited by many. The simulation predicts 490 Mbit/s median speeds for a common configuration of 3.5 GHz 5G Massive MIMO. It predicts a 1.4 Gbit/s median speed for a configuration using 28 GHz millimeter waves.
Some 3GPP 5G networks will be slower than some advanced 4G networks. T-Mobile’s LTE/LAA network is deployed and serving customers at over 500 megabits per second in Manhattan. The 5G specification allows LAA as well but it has not yet been demonstrated.
Adding LAA (License Assisted Access) to an existing 4G configuration can add hundreds of megabits per second to the speed, but this is an extension of 4G, not a new part of the 5G standard
New radio frequencies
The air interface defined by 3GPP for 5G is known as New Radio (NR), and the specification is subdivided into two frequency bands, FR1 (<6 GHz) and FR2 (mmWave), each with different capabilities.
Frequency range 1 (< 6 GHz)
The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR1 is 100 MHz. Note that beginning with Release 10, LTE supports 100 MHz carrier aggregation (five x 20 MHz channels.) FR1 supports a maximum modulation format of 256-QAM while LTE has a maximum of 64-QAM, meaning 5G achieves significant throughput improvements relative to LTE in the sub-6 GHz bands. However LTE-Advanced already uses 256-QAM, eliminating the advantage of 5G in FR1.
Frequency range 2 (24–86 GHz)
The maximum channel bandwidth defined for FR2 is 400 MHz, with two-channel aggregation supported in 3GPP Release 15. The maximum phy rate potentially supported by this configuration is approximately 40 Gbit/s. In Europe, 24.25–27.5 GHz is the proposed frequencies range.
Massive MIMO (multiple input and multiple output) antennas increases sector throughput and capacity density using large numbers of antennae and Multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO). Each antenna is individually-controlled and may embed radio transceiver components. Nokia claimed a five-fold increase in the capacity increase for a 64-Tx/64-Rx antenna system. The term “massive MIMO” was first coined by Nokia Bell Labs researcher Dr. Thomas L. Marzetta in 2010, and has been launched in 4G networks, such as Softbank in Japan.
reference – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5G